Good nutrition means a healthy dog

Vitamin A

Vitamin D

Vitamin E

Vitamin K

Vitamin B1


Vitamin B6



Vitamin B12

Folic Acid


Vision; growth; immune function; fetal

Maintenance of mineral status, skeletal structure,
muscle contraction, blood clotting, nerve
conduction, phosphorus balance.

Defense against oxidative damage via free radical scavenging.

Activation of clotting factors, bone proteins and
other proteins.

Energy and carbohydrate metabolism.

Enzyme functions.

Glucose generation, red blood cell function, niacin  synthesis, nervous system function, immune       response, hormone regulation, gene activation.

Enzyme functions.

Energy metabolism.

Enzyme functions.

Amino acid and nucleotide metabolism,
mitochondria protein synthesis.
Signs of Deficiency/Excess

Anorexia, body weight loss, skin lesions,   conjunctivitis, corneal disorders, respira-
tory ailments, increased susceptibility to
Dehydration, Central Nervous System
depression, joint pain.

Rickets, lethargy, loss of muscle tone,   bone swelling and bending.
Anorexia, weakness, diarrhea, vomiting,   dry and brittle hair, muscle atrophy, dehy-  dration.

Degeneration of skeletal muscle, repro-
ductive failure, retinal degeneration.

No reports of naturally occurring  deficiencies in dogs.

Failure to grow, weight loss, neurological  abnormalities in puppies, damage to the  nervous system and heart in adult dogs.

Anorexia, weight loss, muscular weakness
flaking dermatitis, eye lesions.

Anorexia and weight loss in puppies, convulsions, muscle twitching and anemia  in adult dogs.
Impairment of motor control and balance,  muscle weakness.

Anorexia, weight loss, irritation and inflam-
mation of the lips, cheeks and throat, profuse salivation, bloody diarrhea.
Bloody feces, convulsions.

Erratic food intake, sudden prostration or  coma, rapid respiratory and heart rates, convulsions, gastrointestinal symptoms, reduced antibody production.

Appetite loss, lack of white blood cells,  anemia, bone marrow changes.

Weight loss, decline in hemoglobin  concentration.
Vitamins are an essential part of your dog's good health. Dogs require vitamins in their food at low concentrations.  Some vitamins are essential in low doses and toxic in excess amounts. Always check with your Veterinarian if your dog becomes symptomatic or if you suspect a deficiency in the diet.














Formation of bones and teeth, blood coagulation, nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, cell signaling.

Skeletal structure, DNA and RNA structure, energy metabolism, locomotion, acid-base balance.

Enzyme functions, muscle and nerve-cell membrane stability, hormone secretion and function, mineral structure of bones and teeth.

Acid-base balance, regulation of osmotic pressure, nerve impulse generation and transmission.

Acid-base balance, nerve-impulse transmission,
enzymatic reactions, transport functions.

Acid-base balance, osmolarity of extracellular fluids.

Hemoglobin and myoglobin synthesis, energy metabolism.

Connective tissue formation, iron metabolism, blood cell formation, defense against oxidative damage.

Enzyme reactions, cell replication, protein and carbohydrate metabolism, skin function, wound healing.

Enzyme functions, bone development, neurological function.

Defense against oxidative damage, immune

Thyroid hormone synthesis, cell differentiation, growth and development of puppies, regulation of metabolic rate.

Signs of Deficiency/Excess

Nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism significant decreases in bone mineral content which can result in major skeletal abnormalities.
Different types of skeletal aberrations, especially in growing puppies of large breeds.

Reduced weight gain, poor appetite, bowing and swelling of forelimbs in puppies.

Reduction in weight gain, irritability and convulsions in puppies, hyperextension of carpal joints and hind leg paralysis later in life.

Restlessness, increased heart rate, water intake and hemoglobin concentration, dry and tacky mucous membranes.

Poor growth and restlessness at first in puppies, paralysis of neck muscles and rear legs and general weakness later in life.

Reduced weight gain and weakness in puppies.

Poor growth, pale mucous membranes, lethargy, weakness, diarrhea.
Dangerous oxidative reactions that lead to gastrointestinal and other tissue damage.

Loss of hair pigmentation in puppies, anemia.

Poor weight gain, vomiting, skin lesions.

No studies of deficiency in dogs.

Anorexia, depression, dyspnea, coma,
muscular degeneration.

Enlargement of thyroid glands, dry, sparse hair coat, weight gain.
Excessive tearing, salivation and nasal discharge, dandruff.

There are twelve minerals known to be essential for dogs.  Certain minerals in excess can be harmful.  Always consult with your Veterinarian if you are in doubt of your dog's health.
The Importance of VITAMINS & MINERALS
in Your Dog's Diet
Vitamin & Mineral
The health of your dog is dependent on the nutrition he/she receives from puppyhood through the senior years.  Dogs require specific vitamins and minerals in their diet.  While essential, they can be toxic in excess amounts.  The charts below describe the vitamin/mineral required, its function and signs of deficiency or excess.
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The importance of vitamins and minerals in your dog's diet
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